The damage caused by wildfires can be devastating, but the smoke from the annually recurring blazes also delivers economic damage to areas that have never been touched by the flames. Beyond the tragic toll wildfire smoke has on the health of those in affected areas, there are infrastructure and business costs. Expenses paid by homeowners to improve or increase measures to protect properties and the impact of smoke on livelihoods and budgets can be significant. Real estate developers face particular economic risks. And two sectors most impacted by wildfire smoke are tourism and outdoor recreation.